Tuesday, October 9, 2018

A Midsummer Night's Dream Themes & Symbols UGC Net English

A Midsummer Night's Dream Themes & Symbols UGC Net English

THE ATHENIAN ARISTOCRATS

A Midsummer Night's Dream On stage representations of the opening scene and their influence on our attitude to the rest of the play. A Midsummer Night's Dream starts and virtually ends with the aristocrats. To be exact, it starts with Theseus. How we interpret his relationship with Hippolyta in this scene decides how we will view the relationships of the other lovers. For example, most readers feel that Theseus represents authority, especially patriarchal authority.
The opening scene which has two episodes: Theseus' announcement of his coming marriage to Hippolyta, and Egeus' demand that his daughter marry Demetrius. Theseus' announcement of his marriage: Theseus has just defeated Hippolyta in battle. She was queen of the Amazons, an all-female community. Theseus' conquest of the Amazon queen has been seen by many as an assertion of male authority. He is now to marry her "with pomp, with triumph". He is cheerfully excited, she remains silent. He calls her "my Hippolyta." She does not call him "my Theseus" until Act V when the play is nearly over and harmony has been firmly established.
A Midsummer Night's Dream, english literature, ugc net exam, english
A Midsummer Night's Dream: I from Philip McGuire’s account of five different stage versions of this episode, we summarise two opposing stage versions of the opening scene ("Hippolyta's Silence and the Poet's Pen" in New Casebooks 139-160). If Hippolyta remains next to Theseus and smiles through his speeches, then she appears to share his enthusiasm for their impending manage. Since the play is about love ending in harmonious manage, the relationship of Theseus and Hippolyta in the opening episode becomes the ideal to be learned by the other couples. The audience would have appreciated this. The strongest message in Elizabethan Romantic 'Comedy was that social hierarchies should be maintained. It was considered natural and proper that a woman should be subordinate to her husband, just as it was natural and proper for a state to be ruled by a male. So, Theseus' subduing Hippolyta first in battle and then in marriage would have seemed proper to Shakespeare's audience. The opposite interpretation depends on Hippolyta staying grimly apart from Theseus on the stage. If she does, then she obviously does not share his enthusiasm for their marriage.
Theseus wants to show off his hounds. Hippolyta says that she has seen Hercules' hounds, implying that Theseus' hunt cannot match Hercules'. Since the ruler and his bride-to-be have a disharmonious relationship, it follows that their subjects, the young lovers, will imitate them. Only supernatural power like the magic of Oberon is able to bring harmony to Athens, as it does to his own manage.

In the second interpretation, Oberon is the arbiter of marital happiness. This has exasperated feminists who say that it is unimportant whether Theseus or Oberon is ultimately in charge because both enforce order. After all, even though Oberon is not mortal, he is a male and an aristocrat. The more relevant point is that Oberon wants the Athenian couples to be happy and instructs Puck to ensure this by pouring magic juice into Demetrius' eyes. Puck mistakes Lysander for Demetrius, pours the juice into his eyes, and he, seeing Helena instead of Hermia when he awakens, falls in love with her. Meanwhile, Puck has also poured the juice into Demetrius' eyes who also sees Helena when he awakens, and, if we may use the expression, all hell breaks loose. Eventually the magic is reversed in all but Demetrius who remains in love with Helena which was Oberon's intention all along. In short, disharmony stems from Theseus, spills over into the forest and, in spite of Oberon's excellent intentions, and continues for quite some time.

THE LOVERS, OR TOWN AND COUNTRY

A Midsummer Night's Dream follows this sequence but in the next part of this unit we will analyse a pattern of the play, not its sequential action. Unlike a sequence, a pattern is static; it extends over the entire play. For instance, in this play, dramatic elements seem to come in sets of two. There are two sets of lovers, two rulers, and two men who fall in love with the wrong woman. Patterns impose order on chaos, they order disorder. The rigid patterns of A Midsummer Night's Dream control the wildly changing relationships between the characters. The result is like a dance. In a dance, too, the movements are energetic and constant but they are controlled by the discipline of the dance.

Doctor  Faustus Important Background Topics 
In order to link together the different kinds of critical readings of A Midsummer - Night's Dream we have shown you, we have selected the binary of Athens and the forest which is so strong a pattern that it can be represented in two columns, as we have shown. This binary fits in with generic criticism: some characters appear in the court but not in the forest (pastoral area), others in the forest and not in the court, while some bridge the court and pasture. You will see how details of gender and power relations also emerge, and you can imagine that any stage production could use a structural analysis to emphasise relationships between settings and characters. After reading this section, you should be able to list dramatic elements of A Midsummer Night's Dream according to some other binary classification. For example, you could divide the play according to poetry and prose, or quarrels and dances. Each such exercise will tell you more about the play as well as about Shakespeare's skill in organising his dramatic material.

THE FAIRIES

The fairies are the unusual characters in the play, forming one of the two subplots. In this section we will look at
  • Their role in the play
  • Puck's characterisation and function
The role of the Fairies:

You might think that a grown and serious writer like Shakespeare must have been slightly mad to write a play with fairies in it for an adult audience. But then in his time nearly everyone believed in the existence of supernatural creatures like fairies, witches, goblins. The three witches of Macbeth have been interpreted as symbols.
Shakespeare's audience must have accepted them as real creatures who predict the future and intensify Macbeth's latent ambition. Like the witches in Macbeth, the fairies in A Midsummer Night's Dream are linked with .the world of men. For example, when Oberon accuses Titania of having an affair with the mortal Theseus, we realize that mortals and fairies do not remain strictly separate from each other. In some respects, the fairies are very much like the Athenians. They have a similar social hierarchy. A King and Queen rule them, while some fairies simply fetch and carry for the others and could be seen as the counterparts of the Athenian Mechanicals. In general, however, the fairies fit in with the celebratory air of this play and of the midsummer festival which was supposed to bring visions to young people.

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Wednesday, July 4, 2018

History of Indian English Drama

HISTORY OF INDIAN ENGLISH DRAMA

The HISTORY OF INDIAN ENGLISH DRAMA started from the earliest Indian English play was written in 1831, when Krishna Mohan Banerji write The Persecuted of the present state in Calcutta. English plays could only be written after the English established themselves in India. - Further, there should be enough people proficient in English to constitute an audience. So, like the first poetry, this play comes after the establishment of Hindu College in Calcutta, after nearly a generation had been educated in English and been sufficiently influenced by western ideas. 

The tide of reformation had begun and this play illustrates this movement - it is about the conflict in the mind of a young man, a Bengali, between orthodox Hindu practices and Modern ideas inculcated by English education.

Pre-Independence

Modern theatre came to India with the British and the first theatrical companies were established in those areas which first came under their influence. The first Modern production in Bengali was in November 1795, when two plays Disguise and Love is the Best Doctor were performed in Bengali translation. These translations were done in alliance by a Russian, Lebedoff, Goloknath Das. By 1831, a Bengali theatre (the Hindoo Theatre) had been established which began by - staging portions of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. What this theatrical activity led to was the birth of Modern theatre in various Indian languages and not in Indian English. The felt need for English drama was obviously fulfilled by original British plays. Poetry and drama have always been close companions.
This is by a famous poet, one who is famous in his own Indian language as a pioneer and an innovator, one who is famous for abjuring English to write in his own language. Michael Madhusudan Dutt of course. A version of Harsha's Sanskrit play, is a translation of his Bengali original.
Modern theatre came to India with the British and the first theatrical companies were established in those areas which first came under their influence. The first Modern production in Bengali was in November 1795, when two plays Disguise and Love is the Best Doctor were performed in Bengali translation. These translations were done in alliance by a Russian, Lebedoff, Goloknath Das. By 1831, a Bengali theatre (the Hindoo Theatre) had been established which began by - staging portions of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. What this theatrical activity led to was the birth of Modern  theatre in various Indian languages and not in Indian English., myexamsolution, my exam solution, ugc net english notes, ugc net

In Mumbai (then Bombay) the first theatre, The Bombay Amateur Theatre, was built in 1776 but was exclusively for performances by visiting European companies. Marathi theatre made an early start because of this. Vishnudas Bhave's Sitasvayamvara was produced in 1843 though Annasaheb Kirloskar's production of Shakuntal in 1880 is seen by many to be of crucial importance. The Parsi Natak Mandali was established in 1852 and The Elphinstone Dramatic Club and Victoria Natak Mandali followed. The first recorded play in English from Mumbai is a verse play. This is The First Parsi Baronet by C.S. Nazir produced in 1866. The only other plays that have survived from this early period are D.M. Wadia's The Indian Heroine (1877), which was based on the events of the first war of independence (1857), and P.P. Meherjee's Dolly Parsen (1918).
 In Chennai (then Madras), the Madras Dramatic Society was founded in 1875. It mainly encouraged amateur European theatrical productions. The Oriental Drama Club was recognized in 1882, and The Sarasa Vinodidini Sabha, an unprofessional dramatic society, was founded by Krishnamachary in 1895.

For Indian English Drama, The Madras theatrical scene seems to have been quite active and a number of playwrights came to the limelight. These playwrights wrote on social as well as historical and mythological themes. Some of the plays. Two volumes of his plays entitled Dramatic Divertissements appeared in 1921. These plays expose the behavioral patterns of the middle class. They seem to have been written as light entertainment or farces. The collection includes the following plays: Blessed in a Wife, Vichu's Wife, The Surgeon-General's Prescription, The Point of View, and Wait for the Stroke. Aiyangar writes highly entertaining one-act and two-act plays but doesn't let his talent loose over a full length play.

Indian English Drama: Sri Aurobindo

Pre-independence theatre, there are two colossal figures who left their mark III manly varied fields have to be taken into account. They are Sri Aurobindo and Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore's real impact is in Bengali and the plays that are well known in English translation like The Post Office and The King of the Dark Chamber were not even translated by him. He was a great literary and cultural figure and his impact on his contemporaries was enormous but I don't think we should look at him in such a short survey of Indian English drama.
Indian English Literature
Sri Aurobindo has been written five complete and six incomplete verse-plays between 1891 and 1916, the five complete plays are Perseus the Deliverer, Vasavadutta, The Viziers of Bassora, Rodogune, and Eric the King of Norway. The titles themselves Aurobindo's plays are not confined to India at all -- past or present. Eric is set in ancient Norway and Vasavadutta in ancient India, while the other three are set in the Middle East. Aurobindo is better known as a poet and philosopher, his plays trying to emulate Shakespeare and unable to pull it off. But obviously with a writer of his distinction, these plays do reward readers with flashes of brilliance or playwrights from before independence are Harindrafiatii Chattopadhyaya, and Bharati Ssrabai, T.P. Knilasam, Harindranath Chatropadliyaya may be known as Sarojini Naidu's brother but they were an accomplished poet in his own right. They have many plays to his credit, a light fantasy. They have seven verse-plays to credit

He presents episodes to highlight the individual’s search and fulfilment as opposed to societal curbs and hierarchies. They make good reading. Member of the Progressive Writers Movement, Chattopadhyaya's socialist sympathies come to the fore in his five social plays. These are The Parrot, The Sentry's Lantern,  The Window, The Coffin, and The Evening Lamp. The Window is dedicated to "The Brave Textile Workers of Parel, Bombay" and is about the exploitation of poor laborers by industrialists.
The Parrot examines morality, his bondage of customs, 'The Sentry's Lantern is about the evils of imperialism and is dedicated "To all -the victims of Imperialist Gallows". The three characters in the play, a merchant, a bourgeois poet, and a worker, give it’s their thoughts before they are hanged. It-is the worker who faces death boldly. The Coffin which is "Dedicated to the progressive writers of India" satirizes a bourgeois artist and shows us the responsibilities of writers.
The Evening Lamp is an ironic sketch of a young romantic. His deep social commitment is evident throughout, as he exposes social evil and celebrates the achievements of the lowly and the downtrodden. He is good at writing crisp dialogues and his plays do manage to impress the modern reader.

Indian English Drama: T.P. Kailasam

T.P. Kailasam, a role to play in two histories of literature one is Indian English and the other Kannada. He will always be better known for his contribution to Kannada drama than Indian English. He chose Kannada for his contemporary social plays and English for a rendering of tragic heroes from the epics.
Modern British Poetry 
Further the ease with wildish he writes his Kannada is missing in his English. He wrote in the spoken language of the middle class in Kannada, so much so that it seemed like a mix of Kannada and English (he called it 'Kannadanglo'). In English however he tried to heighten the language with Sanskrit tenns. Obviously he reserved his wit and humor for his Kannada plays. Kailasam has chosen most of his main characters and dramatic episodes from Indian epics. The Burden is based on the Ramayana, and depicts Bharata's feelings on hearing about his father's death. Fulfilment and The Purpose are based on the Ekalavya story from the Mahabharata, which supplies the story for Karna and Keechaka as well. Though Kailasam went to the epics for these plays, he champions the underdog, and gives us refreshingly different views of these characters. Bharati Sarabai's two plays, The Well of the People (1943), and Two Women (1952), show the impact of Gandhi. The first play was inspired by a story in the Harijan, and depicts an old woman who unable to go to Kashi and Haridwar decides to build a well for the so called 'untouchables' instead. The second play depicts two women, Anuradha, the wife of the anglicised Kanakaraya, and Urvashi, a widowed girl who has become a devotional singer. The play seems to advocate that spiritual peace can be found here and now, and complete fulfilment isn't to be found in giving up the world and material ties. Both the plays, the first written in verse and the second in prose, show Sarabai's spiritual and religious beliefs. Both the plays show a society in transition while the first seems to do it far more effectively. Verse-drama has had a cheered history but if it has to be successful Sarabai's natural speech patterns would be worth emulating.

HISTORY OF INDIAN ENGLISH DRAMA

History of pre-independence Indian English drama, Indian English dramatists like their counterparts in other genres were involved in constructing an ideal India. For this they mined the epics and puranas, the lives of saints, and history. They explored and reinterpreted their chosen texts in order to create the India and the Indian who could stand shoulder to shoulder with the English. The Indian they constructed was necessarily Hindu because of the past that they were uncovering in its glory. They were actively engaged in constructing a new society, one that went beyond their specific locations in terms of caste and region. Their territory was India and their audience Indian. This would explain why T.P. Kailasam wrote his engaging rooted social plays in Kannada but his epic character sketches in English. Their India had a Sanskritic past and an English present, their regions had other histories and other needs. This is perhaps why Indian English drama never took off while theatres in other Indian languages flourished during this time.

Indian English dramatists couldn't serve or create any needs among audiences. The audience that wanted theatre in English could see European productions or even Indian productions of English European plays. The audience that wanted Indian theatre could watch theatre in Indian languages. The only way Indian English theatre could have succeeded was to become theatrically provocative and interesting, address local realities in local English’s. This was hardly ever done. Not only do they make no theatrical innovations, and write mainly short plays, they do not even look to Indian dramatic techniques even while they look to ancient Indian epics for characters and episodes. Their dramaturgy doesn't even seem to extend beyond the Elizabethan. There are of course many other playwrights and plays. More than three hundred. Indian English plays were written before independence. There were dramatists like A.S. Panchapakesa Aiyar who were popular in their own times.

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Saturday, June 9, 2018

Dr. Faustus Play Summary in Hindi


Dr. Faustus Play Summary in Hindi, In this video I tried to cover all the important topics of the Play  which can be beneficial for any exam like : UGC NET, IGNOU, DU, Jamia, JNU. its just short analysis. 
1) About the Play
2) About the Writer
3)  Characters
4) Summary & Analysis 
5) Themes 
6) Critical Analysis 



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Origin of English Drama in Hindi


नाटक की शरुआत मानव जाति के धार्मिक ग्रहों में गहरी जड़ से सम्बंधित है। न केवल अंग्रेजी नाटक के साथ ही, बल्कि अन्य नाटकों के साथ भी यही मामला है। Origin of English Drama in Hindi के इतिहास को छाने तो प्राचीन ग्रीक और रोमन नाटक ज्यादातर लोगों के धार्मिक औपचारिकताओं से जुड़े थे। यह धार्मिक तत्व थे जिससे नाटक का विकास हुआ। चूंकि सबसे पहले बाइबिल लैटिन में लिखी गई थी, इसीलिए आम लोग इसका अर्थ समझ नहीं पाए। यही कारण है कि पादरी ने सामान्य लोगों को बाइबल की शिक्षाओं को पढ़ाने और विस्तार करने के कुछ नए तरीकों को खोजने की कोशिश की। इस उद्देश्य के लिए, उन्होंने एक नई विधि का विकास किया, जिसमें सुसमाचार की कहानियां जीवित चित्रों के माध्यम से समझाई गईं। कलाकारों ने एक गूंगा शो में कहानी का अभिनय किया।

Origin of English Drama in Hindi

नाटको का उदय सिर्फ इस चिज से है की पहले धर्म से जुड़ने के लिये इनका इस्तेमाल किया गया था मगर धीरे धीरे यह हर जगह अपने पैर फैलाता चला गया
रहस्य और चमत्कार नाटक (Mastery and morality play)
विशेष नाटक क्लियरिक्स द्वारा लिखे गए थे, पहले लैटिन में और बाद में आम  भाषा में। इन शुरुआती नाटकों को रहस्य या चमत्कार(Mastery and morality play) के रूप में जाना जाता था। मिस्ट्री का शब्द बहुत ही उपशास्त्रीय उत्पत्ति दिखाता है, क्योंकि यह शब्द फ्रांसीसी मिस्टेर से आता है जो कि मिनीस्टेर से लिया गया है , क्योंकि पादरी, मंत्री या मंत्रालय के उपदेश, स्वयं इन नाटकों में हिस्सा लेते हैं। इंग्लैंड में मिरकल शब्द का प्रयोग किसी भी तरह के धर्म को खेल के लिए नही लिया जाता है, लेकिन फिर भी शब्द मिस्ट्री को शास्त्र कथाओं से ली गई कहानियों पर लागू किया जाता है, जबकि चमत्कार संतों और शहीदों के जीवन में घटनाओं से निपटने के लिए दिखाते थे।

मनोरंजन के रूप में नाटक 

(For Entertainment)

मनोरंजन के लालसा के बारे में, हम ध्यान देते हैं कि मध्य युग में, जॉगलर, टंबलर और जेस्टर उस समय की जरूरतों के अनुरूप थे। वे बारहवीं शताब्दी में पाए जाते हैं, और लैंगलैंड हमें बताते है कि चौदहवीं शताब्दी में वे कितने गहरी और अनजाने में विकसित हुए। इसमें से अधिकांश बहुत ही मूर्खतापूर्ण मूर्ख थे, लेकिन संवाद और पुनरावर्तक थे जिनमें से केवल टुकड़े ही बच गए थे। इन मनोरंजकों में से, जेस्टर सबसे अच्छा था। वह अपने कामों से एक बहुत ही शाब्दिक तरीके से अपमानजनक, अपमान में रहते थे, और वह शेक्सपियर के दिन में बच गया, हालांकि उसके उच्च राज्य से गिरने के बाद मूर्ख के खेल के बीच मूर्ख को खेलने के लिए छोड़ दिया गया। वह इस जेनिथ में क्या कर रहे थे हम फेस्टे के टचस्टोन और लीयर इन फूल की तस्वीर से निर्णय ले सकते हैं। उल्लू और नाइटिंगेल के रूप में इस तरह की बहस नाटक के विकास को प्रभावित करती है; चौसर के समय से पहले इनमें से कुछ कहानी में बदल गए थे।
पेजेंट्स का महत्व
मध्य युग के सबसे महत्वपूर्ण मनोरंजन, हालांकि, पेजेंट्स और कई खेलों, चर्च के रहस्यों और चमत्कारों द्वारा पूरे किये गए थे। काफी हद तक बोलते हुए, हम कह सकते हैं कि जुगलिंग और क्लाउनिंग ने फारस और कॉमेडी के आने का आह्वान किया, पेजेंट्स ने ऐतिहासिक नाटक की उम्मीद की, जबकि मई खेलों में हमारे पास एलिजाबेथ के समय में मस्क और पास्टोरल प्ले्स का एक लोकप्रियता है।
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चर्च के अंदर नाटक (Drama inside the Church)

पवित्र तत्व से लेकर पवित्र तत्व तक पहुंचने के लिए, यह साफ है कि चर्च जो कि पहले से ही विनोदी और बहस में उल्लेख किया गया है, किसी न किसी विनोदी से बना है। चर्च ने इनका कुशलतापूर्वक उपयोग किया, उन्हें अपने उद्देश्य के लिए ढाला और, परिचित टैग के अनुपालन में, मनोरंजन के साथ निर्देश का संयोजन किया। नाटक स्पष्ट रूप से चर्च के बहुत सारे योगदान मे है, और मास(आम) नाटकीय विकास में कारक था। वर्ष के मौसम ने नाटकों के विषय वस्तु का सुझाव दिया: क्रिसमस, ईस्टर, बाइबिल से पैदा हुई कहानियां, मिस्ट्रीज कहा जाता है, संतों के जीवन से ली गई कहानियां, जिन्हें चमत्कार प्ले कहा जाता है। मध्य युग के शुरुआती दिनों में पादरी पवित्र दिन मनाते थे। क्रिसमस, ईस्टर, आदि, जीवन के मसीह से दृश्यों को खेलकर। नाटक के विकास में पहला अच्छा स्टेप चर्च में इन कहानियों के प्रदर्शन से ही जाहिर होता है।

चर्च से लोगो तक (Church to Audience )

जब चर्च से बाजार में आता है तो नाटको को अच्छी पहचान मिल जाती है। यह तब प्रभावित हुआ जब चौदहवीं शताब्दी में गिल्डों को प्रदर्शन हुआ था। यह प्रत्येक शिल्प के लिए अपने विशेष व्यापार के according एक नाटक को दिखाने के लिए तैयार था। इस काम को गिल्डों, आत्मविश्वास की कमी और क्षमता और असंतुलन की भारी जुर्माना से की गई थी।
शहर के खुले स्थान पर प्रदर्शन दिए गए थे। दृश्यों पर कोई प्रयास नहीं था, लेकिन मंच गुणों पर ध्यान देना था। हॉल का प्रतिनिधित्व करने के लिए एक जंगली जबड़े के साथ एक राक्षसी सिर था; और एक समृद्ध पोशाक के अलावा अभिनेता के पास उनके हिस्से को दर्शाने के लिए कुछ प्रतीक था। यानी की इतना ज्यादा खुद पर नही कहानियो पर फोकस था

नैतिकता नाटक

Origin of English Drama in Hindi एक तरह से नैतिकता नाटकों का उदय है। रहस्य और चमत्कार ने नैतिकता और इंटरल्यू को जन्म दिया। चमत्कार और रहस्य में नाटकों, गंभीर और हास्य तत्वों को interwoven था। अब वे भाग लेते हैं; नैतिकता गंभीर और इंटरल्यूड को चीजों की उच्च तरफ पेश करती है। नैतिकता स्पष्ट रूप से व्यावहारिक थी। पात्रों ने कुछ गुणों जैसे कि पाप, अनुग्रह, पश्चाताप के प्रकार को दर्शाया गया। इंटरल्यूड केवल मनोरंजन में था। हेवनवुड के हरमैन और चार पी इस संबंध में सबसे अच्छे उदाहरण सबित हुए।
हेनरी छठी (Henry VI) के शासनकाल में नैतिकताएं शुरू हुईं और एलिजाबेथ के शासनकाल की शुरुआत तक चमत्कारी नाटकों का विकास जारी रहा। नैतिकता, जैसा कि हमने कहा है, एक ऐसा नाटक है जिसमें पात्र प्रतीकात्मक, प्रतीकात्मक, या अमूर्त हैं। नाटक का मुख्य उद्देश्य व्यावहारिक है। पहले के कुछ चमत्कारिक नाटकों में पाया जाने वाला प्रतीकात्मक पात्र धार्मिक स्रोतों के लिए अपना महत्व देते हैं। वे कहानी के लिए आवश्यक नहीं हैं। सबसे पुराना नैतिकता नाटकों में से एक था दृढ़ विश्वास का एक नाटक, दृढ़ता का महल । अपने जन्म के दिन से मानव जाति की आध्यात्मिक प्रगति इस नाटक में दिखाई गई है। 

आधुनिक नाटक का उद्भव

Origin of English Drama in Hindi उनके प्रतीकात्मक पात्रों के साथ नैतिकता ने साजिश को अधिक ध्यान से है, जबकि धीरे-धीरे व्यक्तित्व वास्तविक लोगों में व्यक्तिगत मूर्खता के साथ दिखाई दिया। चमत्कारों की तरह ही नैतिकता, दर्शकों के लिए अनुकूलित की गई थी। इन मध्ययुगीन "समस्या" नाटकों की seriousness से छुटकारा पाने के लिए कॉमिक दृश्य पेश किए गए थे। वाइस, नैतिकता के लिए विशिष्ट चरित्र, दृश्यों के बीच प्रवेश करने और लोगों के साथ एक चरित्र के साथ मनोरंजन करने की अनुमति थी। किंग कैनबिस और अपियस और वर्जीनिया में बाउंस के राजा जोहान में इतिहास और नैतिकता में टाउन टाइलर और उनकी पत्नी, त्रासदी और नैतिकता में कॉमेडी और नैतिकता ।



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Friday, June 8, 2018

Look Back In Anger

About Look Back in Anger

Look Back in Anger is a play written by John Osborne. basically the play is about the material life and it expresses the pre-marital life. There is anger between Jimmy and Alison. Look back in Anger 1956 is a realist play written by John Osborne. Well known play of Modern British Theatre. Focuses on Marital Struggle. Class difference - Upper class and working class
Characters
  1. Jimmy : main character, Angry Young Man, frustrated from his life
  2. Alison : Jimmy’s wife, comes from upper class family but married into working class
  3. Cliff Lewis : Jimmy’s friend and lives with him in the same apartment
  4. Helena Charles : Alison’s friend, she comes from upper class, she and Jimmy begins an affair
  5. Colonel Redfern : Alison’s father, He was in British Military and served in India 

Look Back In Anger in Hindi, John Osborne, British Plays, British drama in hindi, myexamsolution, jimmy, myexamsolution.com,

Summary

  • Sunday : Jimmy and cliff sitting and reading newspaper on the other hand Alison ironing
  • The small argument and Jimmy leaves
  • Alison tells to Cliff that she is pregnant, cliff suggest to tells Jimmy
  • When Jimmy enters in room they both still angry
  • Cliff tells to Alison that Helena called you , and then Alison leaves room to talk Helena
  • Helena is coming to stay with them for a time
  • Here Jimmy don’t like Helena
  • When Helena comes : Alison share everything with her, her past and present relation with Jimmy
  • Alison tells her that how they met for the first time, they used to parties with friend name Hugh Tanner , when he leaves his mother then Jimmy maintain the affection with his mother
  • Helena suggest to Alison to her father’s home she already called him
  • When jimmy returns, he tells that Mrs. Tanner (Hugh’s mother ), has become sick and going to die
  • Jimmy decided to visit her home with Alison, he demands to Alison whether to go with your father or with me
  • Alison leaves a letter for Jimmy and goes
  • Cliff blames to Helena for everything
  • Jimmy reads Alison’s letter and becomes very angry
  • Helena tells to Jimmy that Alison is pregnant , but he doesn’t care
  • He insults Helena and she slaps him, then they kissed
  • After several month: same scene as play begins
  • Suddenly Alison arrives, she tells everything happened with her, she lost her baby
  • Helena Leaves the home with her sense of morality
  • Alison and Jimmy feels suffering

Themes

  • Anger
  • Class difference
  • Kitchen sink drama







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Thursday, June 7, 2018

Elizabethan Drama

The Elizabethan Theater

The early Elizabethan drama, before the regular playhouses were constructed, ' permeated a broad gamut of the social life of the times. Nicholas Udall's plays were school plays connected by the boys as part of the liberalized school curriculum. In spite of their amateur playing, the boys used to be requisitioned  to stage the plays before royal dignitaries or in the court itself. The early English tragedy had its advent at the Inns of the Court. Gorboduc was written and produced by two lawyers at the Inner Temple. Oxford and Cambridge became  important centers for staging Latin drama. So much so that even Queen Elizabeth used to visit the universities to witness the performances.John Lyly staged several comedies for Queen Elizabeth and established the genre of Elizabethan comedy. Tragedy, however, could not find patronage either at the royal court or in London. It had to await the advent of adult acting companies and the erection of Public theatres on the outskirts of London. It is in these theatres like the Curtain, the Rose, and the Globe, that the Elizabethan stage came into being, a stage that introduced the plays of Marlowe and Shakespeare. While the growth of Elizabethan drama as a native tradition was a steady one moving self-assuredly without meekly copying classical models, the same would not have been possible without Elizabethan Drama registering itself as significant European theatre since the Greek drama of the fifth century B.C. In its European phase, Elizabethan theatre not only integrated within itself various elements of classical drama hilt also the Greek formulations about comedy and tragedy. The task for the Elizabethans was not only to be forcefully English but also thoughtfully European and distinctively Elizabethan


Miracle and Mystery plays

What began as a religious performance by the clergy extended itself to include lay performers. As the performances gradually became buoyant during the festivals, the clergy came to be excluded from participating in such joyous celebrations. The exclusion of clergy entailed the relaxation of church control over such performances, leading to the secular growth of, what is essentially, a Christian drama. This religious tradition of theater became popular in England by the fourteenth century as Mystery and Miracle plays, the former dealing with biblical stories and the' latter with the lives of the Christian saints. In course of time, cycles of plays evolved presenting various stories but with a singular theme. Though composed by the clergy, with a certain secular composition, in iambic verse, the theatrical organization went into the hands of social and trade guilds associated with towns like York, Chester, Coventry, Wakefield and Lincoln. These cycles, largely bereft of any lasting literary value, facilitated the replacement of Latin by the vernacular as the medium of religion, the shift of theatrical activity from cathedrals to open public places, arid in theatrical experience, a change from a sense of religious solemnity to the pursuit of popular taste. A significant development for the later Elizabethan drama was the mixing up of the solemn religious practices with the comic frivolities inherent in day to clay life.



Morality Plays

The later advances of English religious drama was in the form of a morality play which was, in turn, followed by interludes, the non-allegorical religious plays about earthly characters with a predominant satirical tone. The morality tradition is significant for the abstract characterization of several qualities, both good and vicious. The dramatic story is an allegory of the interplay of the forces of good and evil. The dramatic conflict, essentially between good and evil, leads to the inevitable victory of the good over evil, the former characterized by the strength of religion and the latter smarting under a comic impotence. The morality plays have a long history in England beginning with the fifteenth century and lasting the whole of the sixteenth century. The plays had to reckon with the growth of English nationalism, its political and economic power. More importantly, they had to come to terms with the tides of classical revival and the new humanist learning from Italy. The representative morality plays of the early Tudor period, like The Castle of Perseverance (1425), The  Pride of Life(1425) and Everyman(1 500) (translated from Dutch, the authors anonymous) survey human life from birth to death through the conflicts occurring between one of the cardinal virtues and the seven deadly sins. Social reality of human life was beneath the concern of the early morality play. Plays of the late period like impatient Poverty (anonymous, 1547-58), Lewis Wager's Mary Magdalene (1490), Nathaniel Woodes' The Conflicts of Conscience (1581 ), John Rastell's The Nature of the Four Elements (1517-27) largely dispense with the allegorical form, assume a protestant stance and deal with the issues of the upbringing  of the youth and the evils of social corruption. Significantly, these morality plays betray an awareness of the new age of Renaissance. its affluence and learning,  though the awareness particularizes the Christian formulation of the essential fallibility of man. The plays are substantially dramatic unlike the early morality plays and display, forcefully, the tenor of the English language.


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Rise of Elizabethan Tragedy and Comedy

The long years of the morality tradition, through the vicissitudes of church doctrine and the pressures of the new age, led to the evolution of the Elizabethan dramatic genres of comedy and tragedy. Though  biblical tradition presented dual  perspectives on the predicament of man, either of the comical insignificance or of sufferings,paralleling the generic perspectives of the subsequent comedy and tragedy, the Elizabethan tragedy or comedy, in the making, came to increasingly bear the secular burden of the times. The concern with human condition is the chief characteristic of Elizabethan drama. The growth of the new classicism or learning is definitely a major contributory factor but, more importantly, the socioeconomic and cultural growth of the nation made the focus on human material possible. If we look at the earliest English comedy, Nicholas Udall's Ralph Roister Doister (1553) or the earliest tragedy written by Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton, Gorboduc (1561), the Tudor setting and ethos is particularly striking notwithstanding the classical dramatically through which the plays take shape. The new blank verse, having unburdened metrical rigor generates a new literary freedom hitherto unknown. The new verse presents a heroic spirit in language, emotion and action.

Elizabethan Comedy

The Latin form, with its division into five acts, of the plays of Terence and Plautus structured English romantic comedy right from Ralph Roister Doister. The plays abounded in classical themes like love, intrigue and friendship and character types like the braggart lover, the parasite servant, and the scheming old man. The comedy developed into two distinct traditions of the romantic and the critical comedy. comedies like Udall's  Ralph Roister Doister, at that time romantic comedy grows through the court plays like Mother Bombie (1590) and Endimion (1583) and Lyly like Compaspe (1581), and Robert Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay (1590) and culminates in Shakespeare's comedies like A Midsummer Night's Dreams (1595), As You Like It (1600) and Twelfth Night (1601). Primarily meant for aristocratic entertainment, romantic comedy pursues the theme of love--love as a blend of sentiment, foible, eccentricity, artifice, dedication and self-centeredness, Romantic love is more in the nature of the ludicrous rather than the ridiculous. 

Melodramatic to the core and farcical in treatment, this comedy, set in a pastoral or old world ambience, evokes a romantic mood and an atmosphere of exhilaration, celebration, chivalry and enchantment. With song and imaginative idealism, romantic comedy provides an escape route into a world of fancy and imagination from the realities of life. The other tradition of comedy belongs to the redoubtable Ben Jonson who presented what are called the comedies of humour like Every Man in His Humour (1598), Volpone (1606) and The Alchemist (1610). Essentially city comedies, Jonson evolves his plays as social purgatives to the prevalent moral degradation. Funny yet serious, the laughter evoked is carefully controlled. Falling back on the tradition of rogue fiction, Jonson's protagonists are rogues who succeed until the end b,y their ability to gull others for their avaricious needs. Their eventual failure is a moral corrective driven home forcefully by the playwright.


Elizabethan tragedy : THE SENECAN

The earliest inspiration for the English tragedy were the Latin plays of Seneca.The stage soliloquy of the Senecan plays that made certain plays of Thomas Kyd, Marlowe and Shakespeare extremely popular with the Elizabethan audience. The appeal of the blood letting Seneca to the Elizabethans, bred on the Christian morality tradition, is apparently strange and curious. But the Elizabethans were found a satisfying relation between the traditions of that time. F.P. Wilson sums up the Senecan appeal to the devout Elizabethans. The extent of his influence on English tragedy, academic and popular, would have not been so great if the themes, the doctrine and the form have not proved congenial. The Elizabethans would enjoy the impression which his tragedies gave that crime meets its punishment in this life. They had the same appetite, or at least the same stomach, for sensational incident and violent passion . . . Also they shared with him a taste for moral statement, for pity sentimental and love of rhetoric. His doctrine, it might be thought would have repelled a Christian audience but this was not so. The medieval contemptus mundi had held that we are born in sin linked to it before we are able to sin.. .'




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